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Letting adverts that discriminate against tenants on housing benefit could be banned

Ministers in England are set to meet representatives of landlord associations, tenant groups, property websites and mortgage providers in a bid to clamp down on discrimination against people on housing benefit in the private rented sector.

Housing Minister Heather Wheeler said that adverts which specify that a home will not be rented to people on housing benefit could be banned and she called on landlords and letting agents to stop saying No to DSS claimants.

 

She pointed out that out of 4.5 million households living in private rental accommodation, 889,000 receive housing benefit to help pay their rent. Yet the latest figures show around half of landlords said they would not be willing to let to tenants on Housing Benefit.

‘I will be meeting key stakeholders to tackle the practice of No DSS, to underline the need for immediate change,’ Wheeler confirmed.

Justin Tomlinson, Minister for Family Support, Housing and Child Maintenance, said that everyone should have the same opportunity when looking for a home, regardless of whether they are in receipt of benefits.

‘With Universal Credit, payments can be paid directly to the landlord, and we continue to listen to feedback and work with landlords to improve the system.

Landlords can already receive rent from tenants on Housing Benefit and Universal Credit, meaning payments can be paid directly into their accounts,’ he pointed out.

Wheeler also announced that some £19.5 million is to be provided to local authorities in England to provide homes for people at risk of losing their or who are already homeless, it has been announced

Wheeler said that it will help people to get into the rented sector and the funding will go to 54 projects around the country.

Councils will use the funding boost to help vulnerable people secure their own tenancy through support such as, paying deposits or putting down the first months’ rent and Wheeler said that th

African cities become the new home to over 40,000 people every day, many of whom find themselves without a roof over their heads. With that in mind, IFC has committed to do more to develop the property sector, both to provide new and affordable housing and to encourage an industry that requires significant building materials and has the potential to be a major employer. In May, IFC and Chinese multinational construction and engineering company, CITIC Construction launched a $300 million investment platform, CITICC (Africa) Holding Limited, to develop affordable housing in multiple African countries. The platform will partner with local housing developers and provide long-term capital to develop 30,000 homes over next five years. IFC estimates that each housing unit will create five full-time jobs – resulting in nearly 150,000 new jobs on the continent. Kenya and Nigeria are high on the priority list for the new effort. Kenya’s housing shortage is estimated at 2 million units, while Nigeria is in want of 17 million units. The soaring demand is being met by scant new supply. Africa’s housing market has few local developers with the technical and financial strength to construct large-scale projects. The IFC-CITIC Construction platform will work with local housing companies to develop affordable housing projects across Sub-Saharan Africa, each ranging in size from 2,000 to 8,000 units. CITIC Construction has a proven track record in constructing and delivering large scale housing projects. The platform will start by developing homes in Kenya, Rwanda and Nigeria, expanding to other countries as operations ramp up. “In Angola, through planning, financing, construction and post-construction operation, CITIC Construction has successfully completed the 200,000 units housing program, new city of Kilamba Kiaxi, with relative infrastructure and utilities in four years. CITIC Construction has also founded the CITIC BN Vocational School in Angola which helps youth acquire the skills they need to become professionals”, said Hong Bo, Assistant President of CITIC Group and Chairwoman of CITIC Construction, “CITIC Construction will take advantage of our engineering experience and delivery capability to develop more affordable houses for Africa through the platform with IFC.” “As Sub-Saharan Africa become more urbanized, the private sector can help governments meet the critical need for housing”, said Oumar Seydi, IFC Director for Eastern and Southern Africa. “The platform will help transform Africa’s housing markets by providing high quality, affordable homes, creating jobs, and demonstrating the viability of the sector to local developers. IFC will work with financial institutions to support mortgages and housing finance that will allow people to purchase the units.” The new housing units will be constructed in accordance to IFC’s green building standards, delivering homes that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. The World Bank Group estimates that by 2030, three billion people, or 40 percent of the world’s population will need new housing units. To date, IFC has invested more than $3 billion in housing finance in over 46 countries world-wide. IFC focuses on regions where large portions of the population live in sub-standard housing and have limited access to credit to build, expand, or renovate their homes.is should give them an opportunity to make a home in a property they may otherwise not have been able to access.

‘I want everyone to have the security, dignity and opportunities they need to build a better life and at the heart of which is ensuring everyone can find a safe and secure home to call their own,’ said Wheeler.

‘This funding will make a huge difference in opening up the private rented sector to people who need it and give them the chance to rebuild their lives.

This helps strengthen the choices and opportunities available for those on benefits to secure the homes they and their families need,’ she added.

In a third move, local authorities can now also bid for a share of up to £26 million of Rapid Rehousing Pathway funding for 2019 to 2020.

This extra investment can be used to fund innovative local schemes which help those sleeping rough and struggling with mental health problems or substance misuse issues.

The Private Rented Sector Access Fund will also support minimum tenancies or existing tenancies for a period of 12 months.

Source: Propertywire

Cities Alliance Calls for Proposals

Cities Alliance, a global partnership supporting cities to deliver sustainable development, hosted by the United Nations Office for Projects Services (UNOPS) is offering grants up to USD $50,000 to people working on innovative and accessible solutions for improving tenure security, land and property rights in African countries.

A statement from the organisation explained that rapidly growing cities like Nigeria struggle to support people living in overcrowded slum settlements.

“Many of these residents live in unsanitary conditions and with the constant threat of corruption and forced eviction—all because they lack legal or formal protection to the places they live and work.

“There is a growing number of people trying to solve this problem, and Cities Alliance wants to make sure they have the funding they need to grow and scale their promising solutions,” it added.

According to the statement, those eligible to apply include innovators, microenterprises, social entrepreneurs, community-based organisations, and national and local NGOs working in African cities.

The deadline for the submission of proposal is March 14, 2019.

It stated that over the last 19 years, Cities Alliance has awarded more than 400 grants totalling over $110 million in more than 80 countries, addressing a range of issues including urban poverty, local governance, and climate change.

Source: ThisdayLive

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Liberia President Launches Low Income Housing in Rural Areas

Liberia President, has launched a housing program for rural dwellers known as the Sasstown development project targeted toward a better living environment.

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The former World best footballer took to his official social media page to make the announcement on Sunday, March 3.

President Weah revealed he was excited with the project expected to improve living condition of Liberians, who will be encouraged to go into agriculture after the residential buildings are ready.

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“I’m excited to announce that my vision to transform the standard of living of our rural dwellers, precisely by upgrading their homes from mud brick homes to concrete homes; has started with the Sasstown development project,” President Weah’s statement read in part.

A further breakdown of the Sasstown development project revealed that existing residential cities will be converted to agricultural zones once the new buildings are completed.

In an effort to avoid demolition of their existing homes; which will prevent them from being homeless during the construction period.

“We have devised a strategy wherein we will build the new homes at a different location; and once the construction is done, they can then move into the newly constructed homes while we demolish the old ones and encourage them to do agriculture at the site of their old homes,” he said.

The President assured Liberians that his government would use every available cent on developing the country..

Source: Legit.ng

Bridging The Housing Deficit In Nigeria.

The issue of housing deficit has been growing from bad to worse and successive governments from the time of Nigeria’s independence 59 years ago have been grappling with this problem . But it seems that they have just been scratching at the surface , especially as the country ’ s population has been growing exponentially, making government ’s efforts in this regard seem ineffectual .

Today , the country ’s housing deficit is about 18 million units , and for a country with a population of nearly 200 million people , it is particularly disheartening . It has been stated that to meet the shortfall , the country will require a minimum of an additional two million housing units per annum for 10 years .
It is instructive to note that the challenge of providing adequate housing accommodation is not just a Nigerian problem . According to the United Nations Habitat , about 30 per cent of the world ’s population live in slums , under deplorable conditions or, worse still , in buildings that are structurally unsound and without security of tenure among others .

The report also stated that 35 per cent of the world ’s rural population live in unacceptable conditions , which means that over two billion people are in need of a better housing.
For Nigeria , the government estimates that the housing sector would need about $ 400 billion investment over the next 25 -30 years to resolve this deficit . The World Bank on the other hand said bridging the deficit will cost the country about N59 .5 trillion , which further tallies with the estimation of the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria which puts it at about N56 trillion to be able to adequately meet the housing needs of Nigerians.
There are several barriers to achieving housing for all . They include the Land Use Act of 1975 , which resides the ownership of land in the state governments, the tedious property registration process , the high cost of building materials , the unabating rural -urban migration and the associated inadequate planning development policy which focuses on urban development to the detriment of the rural areas. There is also the failure of mortgage institutions to fulfil their core mandates .

As a way forward , the National Assembly needs to review the Land Use Act to ease the process of land acquisition and documentation in order to make land more easily available for investment. At the moment it is so cumbersome and fraught with corruption that many investors are frustrated in their attempt to contribute to alleviate the housing burden.


The research institutes should also be challenged and motivated to explore the possibility of coming up with cheaper but equally effective local building materials .
There is also the need to provide the necessary infrastructure and social amenities in the rural areas to improve living conditions there and check the rural -urban movement which helps to complicate the housing problem.

Also , the federal government needs to strengthen and challenge institutions like the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria (FMBN ) , the Federal Mortgage Finance Ltd , the Federal Housing Authority (FHA ) and the Urban Development Bank to deliver on their core mandates .
It is our opinion that bridging the gap of housing deficit as well as providing adequate shelter for Nigerians remain a salient feature of the successes Nigeria hopes to achieve in its quest to become one of the top 20 economies in the world . Thus , creating the right environment for investment in this sector would serve as a lubricant to attaining the set target considering the sector’ s potential for growth . So , if this government and the stakeholders can work together in creating the right environment for local and foreign investment in the sector, the shortfall will be a thing of the past .
It goes without saying that solving the housing deficit is a capital intensive project . It must be backed effectively by a public -private partnership investment model . The public -private partnership should be synergized to turn around the dangerous trend , which in the long run will help to halt the growing numbers of homeless people. On the other hand, the real estate investment firms , which presently account for between four and five per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP ), need to change their business model for increased output, while the government -owned real estate outfits need to be privatised to reduce the deficit from a manageable level.

Source: Leadership.

Developer advises govt on low-cost housing

The Chief Executive Officer, UT Homes, Mr Ade Adebajo, has asked government to focus more attention on providing affordable and low-cost housing for all Nigerians.

He lamented that many Nigerians were suffering from lack of affordable housing in the country and urged the government to come to the rescue of its citizens.

Click here to watch weekly episodes of Housing Development Programme on AIT

At the foundation laying/ground breaking ceremony of the construction of 10 units of luxury and affordable bungalows named Campagne De-Maison, by the company in Mowe, Ogun State, Adebajo said private investors had important roles to play in ensuring affordable housing remained available to all Nigerians.

He stated that the public could take advantage of initiatives by investors in the private sector such as the low-cost housing which the company was embarking upon.

He said, “Many Nigerians are still tenants because they cannot afford to own a house. Government should do more to provide cheap and affordable houses for Nigerians as well as provide enabling environment for private investors to thrive. This is the reason UT Homes has embarked on a project of building affordable standard homes for middle and low- income earners.

“The project, a fully furnished gated community, is the first phase of what we are doing and it will be sold within the community. We are targeting middle and low-income earners. We also have provision for mortgages for those who cannot pay once. There is assured security with good sewage system, constant water with excellent finishing. If we go by our projection, the first set of people will move in within the next nine months.”

Adebajo urged Nigerians to take advantage of the opportunity offered by the new development and buy into the project, adding that the government alone would not be able to meet the housing needs of the people.

“It is our own little way of assisting the government. Many of the buildings are already sold out. This is a small development, we are going to do larger one,” he stated.

The company’s Project Manager, Mr Michael Olaiya, said the project would offer the Nigerian public the best in housing revolution.

Source: Maureen Ihua-Maduenyi

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Affordable Housing in Africa

Rapid urbanization is pushing up demand for housing in Sub-Saharan Africa.

African cities become the new home to over 40,000 people every day, many of whom find themselves without a roof over their heads.

With that in mind, IFC has committed to do more to develop the property sector, both to provide new and affordable housing and to encourage an industry that requires significant building materials and has the potential to be a major employer.

In May, IFC and Chinese multinational construction and engineering company, CITIC Construction launched a $300 million investment platform, CITICC (Africa) Holding Limited, to develop affordable housing in multiple African countries.

African cities become the new home to over 40,000 people every day, many of whom find themselves without a roof over their heads. With that in mind, IFC has committed to do more to develop the property sector, both to provide new and affordable housing and to encourage an industry that requires significant building materials and has the potential to be a major employer. In May, IFC and Chinese multinational construction and engineering company, CITIC Construction launched a $300 million investment platform, CITICC (Africa) Holding Limited, to develop affordable housing in multiple African countries. The platform will partner with local housing developers and provide long-term capital to develop 30,000 homes over next five years. IFC estimates that each housing unit will create five full-time jobs – resulting in nearly 150,000 new jobs on the continent. Kenya and Nigeria are high on the priority list for the new effort. Kenya’s housing shortage is estimated at 2 million units, while Nigeria is in want of 17 million units. The soaring demand is being met by scant new supply. Africa’s housing market has few local developers with the technical and financial strength to construct large-scale projects. The IFC-CITIC Construction platform will work with local housing companies to develop affordable housing projects across Sub-Saharan Africa, each ranging in size from 2,000 to 8,000 units. CITIC Construction has a proven track record in constructing and delivering large scale housing projects. The platform will start by developing homes in Kenya, Rwanda and Nigeria, expanding to other countries as operations ramp up. “In Angola, through planning, financing, construction and post-construction operation, CITIC Construction has successfully completed the 200,000 units housing program, new city of Kilamba Kiaxi, with relative infrastructure and utilities in four years. CITIC Construction has also founded the CITIC BN Vocational School in Angola which helps youth acquire the skills they need to become professionals”, said Hong Bo, Assistant President of CITIC Group and Chairwoman of CITIC Construction, “CITIC Construction will take advantage of our engineering experience and delivery capability to develop more affordable houses for Africa through the platform with IFC.” “As Sub-Saharan Africa become more urbanized, the private sector can help governments meet the critical need for housing”, said Oumar Seydi, IFC Director for Eastern and Southern Africa. “The platform will help transform Africa’s housing markets by providing high quality, affordable homes, creating jobs, and demonstrating the viability of the sector to local developers. IFC will work with financial institutions to support mortgages and housing finance that will allow people to purchase the units.” The new housing units will be constructed in accordance to IFC’s green building standards, delivering homes that are environmentally friendly and sustainable. The World Bank Group estimates that by 2030, three billion people, or 40 percent of the world’s population will need new housing units. To date, IFC has invested more than $3 billion in housing finance in over 46 countries world-wide. IFC focuses on regions where large portions of the population live in sub-standard housing and have limited access to credit to build, expand, or renovate their homes.

The platform will partner with local housing developers and provide long-term capital to develop 30,000 homes over next five years. IFC estimates that each housing unit will create five full-time jobs – resulting in nearly 150,000 new jobs on the continent.

Kenya and Nigeria are high on the priority list for the new effort. Kenya’s housing shortage is estimated at 2 million units, while Nigeria is in want of 17 million units. The soaring demand is being met by scant new supply. Africa’s housing market has few local developers with the technical and financial strength to construct large-scale projects.

The IFC-CITIC Construction platform will work with local housing companies to develop affordable housing projects across Sub-Saharan Africa, each ranging in size from 2,000 to 8,000 units.

CITIC Construction has a proven track record in constructing and delivering large scale housing projects. The platform will start by developing homes in Kenya, Rwanda and Nigeria, expanding to other countries as operations ramp up.

“In Angola, through planning, financing, construction and post-construction operation, CITIC Construction has successfully completed the 200,000 units housing program, new city of Kilamba Kiaxi, with relative infrastructure and utilities in four years.

CITIC Construction has also founded the CITIC BN Vocational School in Angola which helps youth acquire the skills they need to become professionals”, said Hong Bo, Assistant President of CITIC Group and Chairwoman of CITIC Construction, “CITIC Construction will take advantage of our engineering experience and delivery capability to develop more affordable houses for Africa through the platform with IFC.”

“As Sub-Saharan Africa become more urbanized, the private sector can help governments meet the critical need for housing”, said Oumar Seydi, IFC Director for Eastern and Southern Africa.

“The platform will help transform Africa’s housing markets by providing high quality, affordable homes, creating jobs, and demonstrating the viability of the sector to local developers.

IFC will work with financial institutions to support mortgages and housing finance that will allow people to purchase the units.”

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The new housing units will be constructed in accordance to IFC’s green building standards, delivering homes that are environmentally friendly and sustainable.

The World Bank Group estimates that by 2030, three billion people, or 40 percent of the world’s population will need new housing units.

To date, IFC has invested more than $3 billion in housing finance in over 46 countries world-wide.

IFC focuses on regions where large portions of the population live in sub-standard housing and have limited access to credit to build, expand, or renovate their homes.

 

Source: ifc.org

Focus on solving housing shortage –Adebajo advises govt

The Chief Executive Officer, UT Homes and Financial Services, Mr. Ade Adebajo, has advised the government of the federation to focus on solving problems related to housing shortage in the country.

Adebayo said government should focus more attention on providing affordable housing for all Nigerians adding that a situation where more houses meant for the rich are lying idle while million of Nigerians are out there sleeping under the bridge is not acceptable.

The UK trained financial expert lamented that many Nigerians are suffering from lack of quality accommodation, stressing that private investors have important roles to play in ensuring affordable housing is available to all Nigerians.

According to him, although, housing for all is one of the policies of the present administration, its realisation has remained a major task despite efforts by the Minister of Power, Works and Housing Minister, Mr. Babatunde Fashola.

 

Speaking at the foundation laying/ground breaking ceremony of the construction of 10 units of luxury and affordable bungalow named Campagne De-Maison, in Mowe, Ofada, Ogun State, Adebajo, called on the public to take advantage of the low-cost housing, which the company is embarking upon.

“Many Nigerians are still tenants because they cannot afford to own a house. Government should do more to provide cheap and affordable houses for Nigerians as well as provide enabling environment for private investors to thrive.

“This is the reason UT Homes has embarked on a project of building affordable standard homes for middle and low-income earners,” Adebajo said.

Adebajo further said, “the project, a fully furnished gated community, is the first phase of what we are doing and it will be sold within the community. We are targeting middle and low-income earners. We also have provision for mortgages for those who cannot pay once. There is assured security with good sewage system, constant water with excellent finishing. If we go by our projection, the first set of people will move in within the next nine months time.

“So we urge Nigerians to take advantage of this opportunity and buy into this project because government cannot do it alone. It is our own little way of assisting the government. Many of the buildings are already sold out. This is a small development, we are going to do larger one.

Source: The Sun

Blended finance unlocks the keys to affordable housing across west Africa

Affordable housing is a major challenge across West Africa, where fewer than 7% of households can afford to buy their own home.

The situation is particularly acute in the countries of the West African Economic and Monetary Union (WAEMU) — Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Togo – where demand for decent housing far outstrips supply.

Click here to watch weekly episodes of Housing Development Programme on AIT

But a new financing tool developed by the World Bank Group, is helping thousands of families across the WAEMU access private housing finance and finally achieve their dreams of owning their own home.

The tool is the $2.5bn IDA 18 IFC-MIGA Private Sector Window(IDA PSW), launched in July 2017 to help catalyse private sector investments and create jobs in the lowest income countries eligible for financing from the World Bank’s International Development Association.

The window combines concessional funding provided by IDA donors with financing and guarantee instruments on commercial terms – an approach often referred to as blended finance’.

This is a game-changing, long-term initiative to bring investment to places that banks and investors have deemed too risky.

At the International Finance Corporation, where I lead the institution’s work on ‘blended finance’, the IDA PSW is helping us break new ground to unlock private investment in economies affected by fragility and conflict.

That includes the WAEMU, where banks currently issue just 15,000 new mortgages every year against an annual demand for 800,000 new housing units.

In December 2017, IFC tapped into the IDA PSW for the very first time with an investment in Caisse Régionale de Refinancement Hypothécaire de l’UEMOA (CRRH-UEMOA), a Togo-based mortgage refinancing company sponsored by the West African Development Bank and IFC.

IFC purchased $9 million in 12-year local currency bonds to increase housing finance while deepening local capital markets. This enabled CRRH-UEMOA to ramp up its housing portfolio while simultaneously extending the local bond market yield curve.

Without the IDA Private Sector Window support through its Local Currency Facility, IFC would not have adequate access to the local currency needed to purchase the CRRH-UEMOA bonds.

The window provided risk protection against exchange rate fluctuations, enabling IFC to source the local currency and purchase the bonds.

By bearing this risk, the PSW Local Currency Facility allows IFC to provide financing in local currency for high-impact projects in countries where market solutions are under-developed or non-existent.

Less than a year since this landmark investment, we have helped CRRH-UEMOA strengthen its local bond investor base and raise the interest of international investors for future CRRH-UEMOA bonds.

Our initial $9 million investment is expected to expand the availability of housing finance across the WAEMU by $500 million in the next four years.

As a result, 50,000 families and businesses are expected to obtain new mortgage loans; 200,000 people will have a new roof over their heads; and about 250,000 new housing-sector jobs will be created.

The project has been so successful that in January 2019, IFC anchored a second 15-year local currency bond in CRRH-UEMOA to support the institution’s efforts to progressively extend its bond maturity terms to 20 years by 2020.

IFC now hopes to replicate this project with IDA PSW support to create affordable housing finance across Bangladesh, Rwanda, and Tanzania, where homeowners can sometimes only find mortgages for up to three-year terms – making home ownership out of reach for most.

Our desire to do more in the poorest countries requires new tools and approaches for mobilising private capital, and the disciplined use of instruments like the IDA Private Sector Window can create markets, improve people’s lives – and in this case, create affordable housing for thousands of people.

Such ‘blended finance’ investments – combining concessional funds with private capital – allows my team to extend IFC’s reach into the most fragile markets, supporting high-impact transformative projects in sectors that struggle to attract commercial finance but have the potential to become commercially viable over time.

Since 2010, IFC’s blended finance team has committed more than $929 million of donor funds, catalysing more than $8.6 billion of IFC and private sector financing.

In 2015, the Addis Ababa Action Agenda challenged the global community to look beyond the public sector to catalyse the trillions of dollars of investment needed to achieve the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Following more than two decades working in the world’s most fragile places, I know that business as usual is not sufficient to meet the SDGs.

But IFC’s recent success in transforming the lives of thousands of new homeowners across the WAEMU – while strengthening local capital markets – gives me hope that we can find creative new ways to get closer to our goals of ending extreme poverty and promoting shared prosperity.

Innovative financial instruments like the IDA Private Sector Window are one way to help get us there.

Source: Martin Spicer,Director of Blended finance at the International Finance Corporation.

The 25 least affordable housing markets in US are located in just 4 states

It is getting more difficult to afford a home in America. According to a report from ATTOM Data Solutions, a real estate and property data provider, median home prices in 2018’s fourth quarter hit their least affordable levels in over a decade.

That quarter, homes sold for a median price of $241,250, a 9 percent increase from the fourth quarter of 2017, while the average annualized weekly wage in the United States of $56,381 climbed by only 3 percent. However, home prices actually became more affordable in 58 percent of counties over that same period.

Click here to watch weekly episodes of Housing Development Programme on AIT

For many Americans, owning a home is financially unrealistic. In some counties, the median home price is more than four times higher than what someone could afford based on the area’s average earnings.

24/7 Wall St. reviewed information from ATTOM Data Solutions on income needed to buy a home and average annual wages in each county to determine America’s 25 least affordable housing markets. The income needed to buy a house is calculated by assuming a 3 percent down payment and a 28 percent maximum “front-end” debt-to-income ratio.

The 25 least affordable housing markets in the United States are clustered in just four states – Massachusetts, Hawaii, New York and California. All seven New York counties are either in or just outside New York City. The 15 least affordable California housing markets are spread out across the state.

To determine the 25 least affordable housing markets in the United States, 24/7 Wall St. reviewed county-level data from ATTOM Data Solutions. Counties were ranked based based on the affordability ratio – median housing prices in the area relative to average annual wages. Home sale price data and the total number of housing units also came from ATTOM. The income needed to buy a house is calculated by assuming a 3 percent down payment and a 28 percent maximum “front-end” debt-to-income ratio.

Source: Grant Suneson

Affordable Housing: What South Africa Needs

The overarching definition used by Future Cape Town, a platform in Africa promoting democracy in the future of cities, is housing units that are affordable to a section of society whose income is below the neighbourhood’s median or average household income.

“However,” says Future Cape Town Director, Rashiq Fataar, “affordable housing comprises various types of housing.”

The four affordable housing types found in government policy, local government developments and some of the national government frameworks around human settlements are: gap, transitional, social and inclusionary.

Click here to watch weekly episodes of Housing Development Programme on AIT

1. Gap housing

In order for South Africa’s cities to truly become inclusive, integrated and transformed, affordable housing in urban areas needs to not only cater for lower-income earners, but must also incorporate the middle-income market, says Sendin.

The City of Cape Town defines gap housing as subsidies and products provided by government and financial institutions to enable households with a monthly income of between R3 500 and R20 000 to purchase property.

2. Transitional housing

According to the City, transitional housing is temporary housing afforded to individuals and households which helps them prepare to transition to more permanent options. It is recognised that, because of the shortage of alternatives for low-income households, some are likely to remain on a semi-permanent basis.

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3. Social housing

The City describes social housing as state-subsidised rental housing for households with a monthly income of less than R15,000 that is developed and operated by an accredited social housing company or institution otherwise known as SHIs.

4. Inclusionary housing

Future Cape Town’s explanation of inclusionary housing is that it is housing developed by the private sector for a market that would not have had access to the development or the area within which the development takes place.

National and local government have admitted that they lack the resources to tackle the country’s housing issues alone, which possibly makes inclusionary housing the most viable option. One way that developers are able to contribute, whilst still ensuring the profitability of their projects, is through securing additional development rights from the city for free.

“Inclusionary zoning is a basic intervention used by top cities around the world to ensure that private developers build a fair amount of truly affordable housing in exchange for additional development rights,” says Julian Sendin, a Senior Researcher at Ndifuna Ukwazi, an activist organisation and law centre working to advance urban land justice.

Up until recently, social housing was seen as the only way to retain housing units as affordable in perpetuity. However, inclusionary housing might provide a better alternative as these homes are purchased and not merely rented, thus promoting ownership.

In order for South Africa’s cities to truly become inclusive, integrated and transformed, affordable housing in urban areas needs to not only cater for lower-income earners, but must also incorporate the middle-income market (earning between R15 000 to R45 000), who are also unable to afford to live in well-located urban areas. Doing so will ensure that more people from a mix of income brackets benefit from urban opportunities.

Source: Property24

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