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New York: Low-income homeowners are losing

Willie Richardson is one of dozens of property owners who recently triumphed in a lawsuit against New York City when its government attempted to foreclose on six financially troubled apartment buildings.

Richardson owns shares in a city-sponsored housing cooperative, and the story of how he got those shares and why he may still lose them is part of the herculean struggle to preserve affordable housing in one of the world’s most expensive cities, where an apartment in the most affluent borough – Manhattan – costs a median $1m.

A county judge recently issued a blistering condemnation of New York City’s attempt to seize the building where Richardson lives (in Brooklyn, the borough southeast of Manhattan) along with five other buildings in that area and turn them over to a publicly appointed property-management company.

Apartments like Richardson’s home, which is in the rapidly gentrifying Clinton Hill neighbourhood, are attractive to management companies and other real-estate developers because they are often valued at hundreds of thousands of dollars or more depending on the size, location and financial health of the cooperative – or co-op – to which they belong.

Holding onto New York City co-ops – or losing them – can make or break the financial health of low-income people who face the threat that the city government will take these buildings away and sell them to investors. With New York’s average home costing $677,000 and its average monthly rent totalling $3,519, people in the greater metropolitan area devote an average 36 percent of their incomes to housing. That’s 17 percent above the US national norm. But among most low-income renters, reports the Community Service Society, housing eats up more than half of income – 50 percent above the national average.

History of housing help

Richardson’s low-income co-op in a Housing Development Fund Corporation (HDFC) building is among hundreds of thousands of such co-ops that New York City’s government established in the financially beleaguered 1970s and 1980s, when the city’s population was shrinking because crime and economic stress were driving thousands of middle-income people to leave.

At the time of their creation, city-sponsored low-income co-ops – also known as HDFCs – were seen as a way to assist people like Richardson while simultaneously saving buildings from landlords who had abandoned them rather than pay back taxes, unpaid water bills and other arrears.

New York City helped people living in neglected buildings form corporations or co-ops, then sold the buildings to these residents at prices as low as $250 per apartment. As part of the deal, co-op members were required to manage the buildings themselves.

Attaining these properties gave middle- and working-class New Yorkers like Richardson a chance to become homeowners. And in a city where the majority of people are renters that simple change in status not only stabilised housing costs for less-affluent New Yorkers, but also allowed them to build wealth.

HDFC co-op units have been known to trade hands for $500,000 or more – despite the fact that their government-subsidised nature reduces the speed at which their values grow because the city takes a 30 to 50 percent cut of the profit from resales of such apartments.

All told, the return on these investments can be more than two hundred thousand percent.

Source: Will Swarts

How Luxury Units Turn Into Affordable Housing

Building more high-end apartments doesn’t sound like quick fix for the affordable housing crisis. But maybe you just have to look harder.

There’s a fierce argument about housing affordability and supply that’s raging in the urbanist community. The big question: Does building “luxury” (or market rate) housing in wealthy neighborhoods free up more housing for everyone? Advocates in the “Yes In My Backyard” (YIMBY) movement say it does; others are more skeptical.
The market-rate-skeptic’s view, as captured in Richard Florida’s write-up of a new paper by Andrés Rodríguez-Pose and Michael Storper, paints a picture like this: Allowing new market-rate housing citywide will only result in high-end units in already-expensive neighborhoods.At best, developers may win big as the wealthy enjoy new homes. At worst, it could exacerbate segregation in wealthy neighborhoods and displacement in low-income neighborhoods.

The pro-market-rate position, championed by YIMBYs, is more optimistic: This view would concede that, though it’s true that new market-rate units will be expensive given the current scarcity of housing, new units will ease up demand for existing housing. Through a process known as filtering, this older housing gradually becomes more affordable to middle- and low-income households. This will ultimately mitigate displacement risk in more vulnerable communities.

A new working paper by economist Evan Mast of the W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research may help move the ball on this issue. Mast’s work suggests that even expensive new units in wealthy areas help relieve pressure on rents across the market, including in less-affluent neighborhoods. And that process doesn’t need to take years to unfold.Until now, the argument for filtering has played out in the long run: Given a steady supply of new housing, older homes and apartments gradually grow more affordable, and households of all income levels gradually move into better housing. But many North American cities are in the grips of an urgent affordability crisis right now: Promises based on “the long run” can feel like cold comfort. What about the short run?Mast looked at 802 new multifamily developments across 12 central cities, from the “Texas doughnuts” of Dallas to luxury high-rises in New York City. Using commercial address data, he found out the moving history of the residents of these new units.

The first round of moves are roughly what you might expect: Approximately 70 percent came from nearby neighborhoods with above-average incomes, with the remaining 30 percent moving from below-average neighborhoods. These aren’t exactly inspiring results for activists focused on helping households at the bottom of the market.

But when a household moves into a new unit, they initiate a kind of housing musical chairs by vacating their existing unit. A second household then moves into that unit, in turn vacating a third unit. For each new market-rate building, Mast follows this trail of movers back through six moves, tracking where residents are moving from, a process he calls the migration chain.

By the sixth link of this chain, Mast finds that approximately half of the movers are moving out of census tracts with below-median incomes. As many as 20 percent of movers are coming from the poorest tracts in the city.

These findings suggest that housing markets aren’t nearly as segregated as some might fear, if you work your way down the migration chain far enough.

His model suggests that for every 100 luxury units built in wealthier neighborhoods, as many as 48 households in moderate-income neighborhoods are able to move into housing that better suits their needs, vacating an existing unit in the process. Somewhere between 10 and 20 of these households are coming from among the city’s lowest-income neighborhoods, vacating units and reducing demand where housing is most likely to be affordable for working families.

This suggests that even pricey new units could free up a lot of existing housing. Accounting for possibilities like units sitting vacant, out-of-town movers filling the units, or units being used as second homes/pied-a-terres/safe deposit boxes in the sky, Mast’s model still indicates that for every 100 new market-rate units built, approximately 65 equivalent units are created by movers vacating existing units.If the migration chain is as robust as this paper finds it to be, as much as half of theses newly vacated units could be in low- and moderate-income neighborhoods. This new supply, combined with less demand, could play a major role in easing pressure on rents in the short run.Source: citylab

Half of employed people who don’t own a home believe they cannot afford to buy

Home ownership in the UK is just a pipedream for half of employed people due to high day to day living costs, meaning they cannot afford to get on the property ladder, new research suggests.

It is still an aspiration for 65% of non-home owners but 47% do not think they will be able to afford to buy their own home, according to the financial well-being index from Close Brothers.

Some 27% are spending more than 50% of their monthly income on housing costs, and 10% are spending over 70% while 13% say that their housing costs are unaffordable, rising to 19% for millennials

It points out that official figures published by the Office for National Statistics shows that average house prices in Britain have increased by more than 270% over the past two decades and this has pushed back the age that people become home owners by at least eight years since 1997.

It also says that while there is potential for improvement as house price growth is at the lowest annual rate since September 2012, if growth continues to stagnate while wages improve, home ownership could become a more feasible ambition. But to successfully save for a property, employees must have a financial plan in place.

It believes it is a concern that four in 10 employees said they don’t know where to start when it comes to getting onto the housing ladder and this, more than anything, highlights the importance of offering employees the right advice to help them reach their long term savings goals.

The research also found that 63% of employees would expect to see their housing costs increase in the case of an interest rate rise. Of these, 65% said that this is because they have a variable rate mortgage. Millennials are most exposed as 76% would see housing costs rise in the case of a rate rise.

‘Housing is a key area of financial wellbeing, and it’s heartening to see that employees record a relatively strong score here. However, there seems to be a gap between perception and reality,’ said Jeanette Makings, head of financial education at Close Brothers.

‘While there’s confidence around affordability, a huge proportion of people’s salaries are going on housing costs. This makes saving for the future more difficult and contributes to the scale of uncertainty when it comes to taking the first step onto the property ladder,’ she pointed out.

According to professor Cary Cooper, an expert in workplace well-being at the ALLIANCE Manchester Business School, University of Manchester, being worried about housing affordability can damage a person’s well-being regardless of whether they’re at home or work.

‘Whether it be paying the rent, taking the leap as a first time buyer, or the impact of a variable interest rate in times of economic uncertainty, it’s vital that employees are comfortable and confident in how to approach their finances when it comes to housing,’ he said.

Source: Property Wire

Apprehension Over Absence Of Special Intervention Fund, Affordable Housing

The provision of affordable housing to Nigerians is the responsibility of government at all levels, though assisted by the private sector. However, the absence of special intervention fund for the real estate sector has further worsened the presence of affordable housing especially for low income earners.

Though past governments have enacted policies to boost housing, but it failed to meet the housing needs of Nigerians due to absence of designs that captured diverse cultural delineation as was seen during Shehu Shagari administration in 1979.

The 2000 housing policy tagged, Housing for All by Year 2000 and 2012 national housing policy, aimed at providing affordable housing for Nigerians also failed. With the election of APC- led administration in 2015, the federal government commenced the pilot phase of National Housing Programme (NHP) in 34 states including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) in 2017, with the exemption of Lagos and Rivers states whose governors failed to donate land for the project.

Though the projects are yet to be commissioned but stakeholders have lamented that it cannot in anyway bridge the expected housing deficit as other pending issues such as access to land, absence of foreclosure law and among others crippling real estate development are yet to be addressed.

To this end, the realtors have pleaded with President Muhammadu Buhari (PMB) to urgently address the issue of special intervention fund, access to land and among others in his second tenure.

The managing director of FESADEB Communications Limited, Barr Festus Adebayo lamented that Nigeria remains one of the worst performing countries in the world where its citizens lacked adequate shelter. He called on PMB to address access to land, which he said remained a major hindrance to housing in Nigeria.

Adebayo noted that the problem associated with Land Use Act has affected access to land, led to land scam and land grabbing. He sought for the review of National Housing Fund (NHF) adding that the National Assembly had transmitted the NHF bill to the President for signing into law, having passed it on February 2019.

He said: “The President had rejected the bill for legal and economic reasons ranging from infractions on extant laws, duplication of responsibilities of existing agencies and financial constraint.’’ Adebayo who is also the convener of Abuja International Housing Show disclosed that President Buhari should initiate policies targeted at providing affordable housing for Nigerians.

He pointed out that PMB should concentrate on economic interventions that could reduce the cost of building materials and encourage local production of building materials. Adebayo added, “The president should enable processes that will make it easier for cooperatives to pull their resources together and contribute to national funds on housing”.

He regretted that Nigeria has the biggest and most promising housing market in Sub-Saharan Africa, but ironically the least developed. The MD wondered why the country is often fraught with challenges like substandard development, incompetency, building collapse, fraud and conflicts.

He sought for the establishment of supra- regulator that would checkmate individuals and organizations that frequently ventured into the sector without meeting any form of training and education.

He said, “There is no entity saddled with the task of handling problems associated with developers and housing finance fraud that is rampant in the sector. “Fraudulent developers and some unscrupulous mortgage banks have swindled a lot of people because the kind of regulation that should have been in place to check their excesses and nip it in the bud is absent.

In addition, there is a need to introduce legal reforms that will enable timely resolution of housing and investment cases in the law courts and the legal reforms should also make it impossible for lawyers to abuse the system”, he added. He suggested the unbundling of Ministry of Power, Works and Housing (PWH), saying that the meagre slowed down activities in the housing sector.

Adebayo hinted that federal government should recapitalize the Federal Mortgage Bank (FMBN) in order to increase its financial base. In his contribution, the chairman of JEDO investment limited, Alhaji Aliyu Oroji Wamakko called on federal government to resolve the absence of special intervention fund in the housing sector, just like it was done in the agriculture sector.

Wamakko believed that the failure of government to provide intervention fund is the reason for high interest rate and high cost of houses in the built sector. He said that with lower interest rate and special intervention fund for housing development, that investors would be able to provide houses at a very cheaper price.

Wamakko who is also the vice president, Real Estate Developers Association of Nigeria (REDAN) requested that federal government should subsidise the prices of its houses for low income earners. He disclosed that REDAN has always advocated for the enactment of closure to safeguard realty investment in case of default by off-takers.

Another stakeholder who spoke on condition of anonymous suggested that to address Nigeria’s housing problems that there should be consolidated efforts to diversify Nigeria’s economy which is largely dependent on crude export. He pointed out that areas like agriculture, education and housing have been identified as possible ways to expand government’s resources through massive investment.

The expert lamented that housing development cannot be possible in an environment smeared by violence, vandalism and terrorism. While requesting for active engagement of stakeholders in resolving the housing deficit, she pointed out that there is a need for the introduction of special intervention fund in the sector as was done in the agriculture sector.

Also, the executive director of Mobilisation, FESADEB communications limited, Flora Anne disclosed that the interest rates, both for public and private mortgage institutions should be affordable and pegged at single digit rate. She said, “While public buildings like the federal secretariats in Zamfara, Bayelsa, Nasarawa and Ekiti and the Zik Mausoleum in Onitsha has been built, and the pilot phase of NHP has kicked off, leading to housing construction in the 34 states where government had received land but there is still a lot more to be done in order to reduce Nigeria’s deficit”.

Source: leadershipng

Affordable housing getting scarcer, less affordable – Report

A series of reports on eight Valley counties show a staggering deficit of available housing for low-income renters and increasing costs pushing housing options out of reach.

“In California, including in the San Joaquin Valley, we have to move beyond the usual platitudes about having an affordable housing crisis. It is more than that. It is a human catastrophe of historic dimensions,” California Coalition for Rural Housing Executive Director Rob Wiener said in a written statement about the reports generated and released by the California Housing Partnership in collaboration with his organization.

The eight reports focus on affordable housing in Fresno, Madera, Kings, Tulare, Kern, Stanislaus, Merced and San Joaquin counties.

In those counties, there’s a need for 137,254 more affordable homes, but since 2008 all of them have lost more than half of their state and federal housing assistance — about $138 million collectively.

This has included the California-wide loss of redevelopment dollars starting in 2012.

Among the specific losses, Madera County lost 73% of its state and federal funding ($5 million annually) since 2008, Tulare County lost 72% ($24 million annually), Fresno County lost 62% (more than $27 million annually) and Kings County lost 57% (almost $8 million annually), according to the reports.

As for renters, “Even with significant recent [pay] increases, minimum-wage earners are still priced out of San Joaquin Valley housing markets,” the press release states, noting that such workers in Tulare, Madera, Fresno and Kings counties must make 1.5 to 1.9 times the minimum wage to afford current asking rents. “It is not normal to have tens of thousands of our neighbors living ‘on the street’ every day. It is not normal to have many more who are on the edge of homelessness. It is not normal to live in overcrowded, dilapidated homes and to pay 50%, 60%, 70% of income and more for our housing. It is not normal to send our young college-educated children out of the state because they are saddled with enormous debt and can no longer afford to live in California,” Wiener’s statement continues.

“We must mobilize now with the political will and resources to significantly ameliorate the problem, or California’s future will be in serious jeopardy.”

In order to make substantial progress toward addressing this crisis, the reports recommend state leaders take the following actions:

Replace redevelopment funding for affordable housing with at least $1 billion annually to help local governments meet their state-mandated affordable housing production goals.

Expand California’s Low-Income Housing Tax Credit Program by $500 million per year to jumpstart affordable housing production and preservation.

Create a new California capital gains tax credit to preserve existing affordable housing at risk of conversion and to fight displacement pressures in rural opportunity zones.

Reduce the threshold for voter approval of local funding of affordable housing and infrastructure from the current 67% to 55%, as was done for educational facilities in 2000.

“These reports make clear that the housing crisis is bigger than any single community, and no matter how hard local governments and their citizens work to address the crisis they need help from the state and federal governments,” Matt Schwartz, president and CEO of the California Housing Partnership, stated in the press release.

“Which is why we need the State to provide critical missing tools by, one, replacing redevelopment funding the State took away in 2012; and, two, lowering the voter threshold for passing local affordable housing measures from two-thirds to 55%, as was done for education in 2000.”

Source: The Business Journal

US: Cory Booker unveils plan to combat housing ‘affordability crisis’

Presidential candidate Sen. Cory Booker unveiled a housing plan Wednesday to address an “affordability crisis” in the US, shining a national spotlight on an issue that has been at the center of his political identity for more than two decades.

“Making sure all Americans have the right to good housing is very personal to me,” the New Jersey Democrat said. “I’m determined to tear down the barriers that stand in the way of every American being able to do for their families what my parents did for mine.”
Booker’s plan, modeled after legislation he previously introduced in the Senate, focuses on a renters’ credit that he says would lift 9.4 million people out of poverty. In that regard, his proposal is similar to a plan by his 2020 rival Sen. Kamala Harris, a California Democrat who has centered her own housing policy on a subsidy for low-income renters.
But Booker’s blueprint goes further than Harris’, with sweeping changes to restrictive zoning laws, coupled with federal incentives to build more affordable housing. Advocates have called for such changes in cities like Los Angeles, where homelessness has spiked sharply amid rising housing demand and prices.
Booker would also expand the right to counsel for low-income tenants fighting eviction, while targeting discriminatory and predatory housing market practices, and funding grants to combat homelessness.
Source: CNN

Wells Fargo to donate $1 billion toward affordable housing by 2025

Wells Fargo & Co said on Wednesday it will narrow the focus of its philanthropy toward three causes including affordable housing and will donate $1 billion (£787.1 million) to housing over the next few years.

The San Francisco-based bank named Brandee McHale to be the new head of the Wells Fargo Foundation which will be focused on addressing housing affordability, improving financial literacy and growing small businesses. McHale joins the bank from Citigroup Inc and replaces Jon Campbell whose retirement was previously announced.

Wells Fargo, the fourth-largest U.S. bank, has ramped up its charitable giving following a profit boost from tax reform and in the wake of a wide-ranging sales scandal which has badly tarnished its reputation and weighed down its financial performance.

Wells Fargo gave away $444 million to charitable causes last year, potentially positioning it as the top corporate cash giver in the country. The bank has pledged to donate 2% of its after-tax profit annually.

As part of its renewed focus on promoting home-ownership, Wells Fargo said it will donate $1 billion to organizations that support affordable housing through 2025 and launch a $20 million grant to encourage organizations to find new solutions for the lack of lack of low-to-moderate income housing options.

Wells Fargo has already donated over $460 million in down-payment assistance grants since 2012.

By focusing on housing, financial literacy and small businesses the bank will be donating more money toward causes that align closely with its business expertise, spokeswoman Jennifer Dunn said.

Wells Fargo will still support causes like arts, education and disaster relief through local projects but broader initiatives will be focused on the three primary areas.

Source: EuroNews

Tokyo proves that housing shortages are a political choice

In the debate about how to solve the housing shortage in UK cities, foreign examples, especially in the rest of Europe and English-speaking countries like the US and Australia, often pop up to show what we can do better. But recently, some of the most exciting ideas in housing policy and planning reform have started to come out of Japan.

The Centre for Cities recently visited Tokyo, Sendai, and Onagawa Town through the Japan Local Government Centre on the Japan Study Tour to find out more about how cities function in one of the most urbanised countries on the planet – and what we can learn from them here in the UK. Here’s what we found.

Japanese homes are cheaper because they build more

Compared to skyrocketing housing costs in many Western cities, Japan has seen remarkable success in supplying affordable housing – even in cities with lots of economic growth. While average mean rents in London are upwards of £2,000, average rents in Tokyo are about £1,300 – even after Brexit-related depreciation of pound sterling.

This isn’t caused by social housing or danchi – less than 5 per cent of homes across Japan are socially rented, compared to about 17 per cent in England. And it’s not because Japan’s population is shrinking either – Tokyo’s population is still growing due to migrants from other parts of Japan and abroad.

Instead, it’s because the supply of housing in Japanese cities is responsive to local demand. While the UK saw about 194,000 houses start construction last year, Japan saw 942,000 housing starts last year.

Even though Japan demolishes and rebuilds lots of houses, the net increase in homes is still much larger than the UK – about 600,000 homes (Table 5) are added to Japan’s dwelling stock every year. Tokyo has added roughly 110,000 homes a year since 2003, compared to 20-40,000 a year in London over the same period.

These homes are often smaller than what we’re used to – the average property in Tokyo is 55 square metres, compared to 80 square metres in London. But this isn’t the full story. New supply in Tokyo responds to demand by building lots of smaller one-bed flats for singles, and young people can live independently without needing to share with housemates. This means that, even though average homes are smaller, the average Tokyoite probably has more housing floor-space per person today than the average Londoner because living with housemates is so uncommon.


Japan’s flexible zoning system is a different kind of planning

The planning framework that underpins this supply is a simple zoning system that allows by-right development, rather than one that relies on granting planning permission for each individual site. There are only 12 zones, defined according to the maximum nuisance level they allow, ranging from sleepy residential to polluting industrial uses. The key is that pretty much anything can be built, provided it does not exceed the zone’s nuisance level – so in areas zoned for high street usages it is possible to convert a hotel into housing and vice versa, but this is not possible in residential only zones.

This allows market supply to respond quickly as market demand changes and ensures development and density is driven by land values. If the demand to live in a city grows, older houses can be knocked down by landowners to provide more and better quality homes. In the case of apartment buildings, 80 per cent of the apartment owners need to agree to demolition and redevelopment. This is why Japan’s higher rate of demolition isn’t wasteful, as it enables an efficient supply of more and better quality housing.

Local taxes in Japan also encourage more homes

As a result, there is a clear difference in Japan between the value of land and the value of the property that sits on it. Like in other countries, the price of land in Japan reflects local economic strength and access to amenities and jobs. But unlike the UK, in Japan, the value of houses declines as they get older, because it so easy to supply new homes. Reflecting this, the property tax valuation of Japanese homes also declines over time, increasing the incentive for local government to build new homes to fund public services.

Japan shows how political choices cause Britain’s housing shortage

Of course, the planning system is not the only thing which is different. One factor is that the politics of housing are rather distinct – for instance, green belts around Tokyo in 1946 and 1956 failed because they were so unpopular with residents and local government.

But what Japan’s inexpensive homes and its alternative policy approach prove is that the housing shortage in British cities is not inevitable. Housing does not have to be expensive in prosperous cities. The housing shortage is something we have chosen to experience and can choose to change if we want to. If Tokyo managed to reform its green belt, twice, why can’t London or Cambridge?

We may not want to copy-paste everything about Japanese housing into UK policy. We may, for instance, choose a larger role for social housing, or slightly stronger heritage conservation. But for national and local policymakers trying to end the housing shortage, understanding Japan’s experience is essential if we want housing to be inexpensive for everyone.

Shelter Afrique seeks Sh9.8bn cash call arrears

Continental developments funder Shelter Afrique has urged its 44 shareholders to fulfil their Sh35 billion capital subscription to enable it carry out its mandate.

Speaking during the Ministers of Housing sideline event at the just ended 2019 UN Habitat General Assembly in Nairobi, Shelter Afrique CEO Andrew Chimphondah said its 44 members owed it Sh9.8 billion capital subscription arrears since the 2013 cash call.

The balance is from a fresh cash call to raise additional Sh25.2 billion made in 2017.

“The cumulative Sh35 billion arrears is the main challenge for Shelter Afrique to effectively engage financial markets for further funding,” said Mr Chimphondah.

Terming housing a human right, the CEO said the lender was holding talks with various States seeking fulfilment of their quota while urging others to increase their stake in the Pan-African company.

“We are keen on inviting new member countries to join as shareholders and our current target countries include Egypt, Angola, Ethiopia, and Mozambique.”

New affordable homes for Cornish seaside town

A development of 40 new homes at Marazion has been granted planning permission and will help provide new affordable housing.

Cornwall Council’s west sub-area planning committee this morning voted unanimously to approve the plans to build the homes on land at Churchway, Marazion.

The development will include 14 affordable houses on the site with 10 for affordable rent and four for affordable sales.


A development of 40 new homes at Marazion has been given planning permission. Photo: Google Maps

While the level of affordable housing on the site is just 35% councillors heard that the development will also provide money to build affordable homes elsewhere in Cornwall.

The development is part of the Homes for Cornwall project which is being run by Cornwall Council in partnership with housebuilder Galliford Try.

Under the project Cornwall Council is using its own land to help provide affordable houses as well as other good quality homes.

The sale of the land will provide funding which will be invested in building affordable homes on other sites.

marazion housing


“The Marazion site will provide 14 affordable homes, 35%, and a land value to the council.

“If this site was required to provide 50% affordable housing this would see an additional six affordable homes provided.

“However, the land receipt generated from the site will allow for the purchase of a site that will provide a minimum of nine affordable homes, therefore by providing 35% affordable housing on this site the provision of the land receipt allows the council to provide more affordable homes collectively than what would be provided on this site in isolation”.

Planning Officer Chantal McLennan

Homes For Cornwall has provided new homes in Shortlanesend, Madron, Wadebridge, Blackwater, St Breward and Penzance.

“A comment I have heard from residents is if we need to build affordable homes then why don’t you use council-owned land and that is what we are doing here”.

Committee Member Joyce Duffin

Under the plans in Marazion an area of public open space will be created to the west of the site and a footpath which runs through the site will be diverted.

The plans were approved unanimously.

Source: By Richard White House

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