Oil based paints are slow drying paints which consist of particles of pigment suspended in drying oil or oil varnish as the basic ingredient. The commonly available oils are linseed oil, Tung oil, poppy oil, nut oil. Oil-based paints are thicker and harder. They are also glossy and smoother.
Paints produced using synthetic resins as binders instead of natural oils or resins. Although most of the paint resins used nowadays are synthetic, use of synthetic paint term for defining alkyd resins is still common.
Water paints are is mostly opaque, the paints are made of pigments suspended in a water-based solution.
Emulsion paints are water-based paints in which the paint material is dispersed in a liquid that consists mainly of water. For suitable purposes this has advantages in fast drying, low toxicity, low cost, easier application, and easier cleaning of equipment, among other factors
Varnishes are in effect paints without pigment; they provide a protective coating without substantially changing the colour of the surface, though they can emphasize the colour of the material.
Cellulose paints are mostly used as spray paints in car industry because they dry quickly by evaporation of solvents. They are not satisfactory for general building work, but can be used for furniture and fitting in houses.
Among the many kinds are aluminium paints, bituminous paints, chlorinated rubber paints. These are used for special applications and manufacturer’s instructions should be followed for thinning and application of the required number of coats.